Explain two organizational models of organisation culture which would help to achieve your chosen organisation’s strategic goals.

  1. Explain two organizational models of organisation culture which would help to achieve your chosen organisation’s strategic goals. (Assessment Criteria 1.1: Explain how models of organisation culture can be used to achieve organisational objectives).

Organizational model is a substructure of a business organisation that states the power, direction of order, management and cost control of a company. The explanation on how the company ought to play role in both scientific feature and from a psychological feature. The following are the two mostly applied models in to analyze the kind of lifestyle an organisation works for.

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a structure for multicultural communication evolved by Geert Hofstede. The consequences of an association’s lifestyle on the upon its members worth and the way it relates to behaviour of its members is stated in the theory, by using the framework obtained by factor examination. Original model evolved by Hofstede was a result of factor examination to inspect the observation carried all over the world of the employee’s worth by IBM in between the period of 1967-1973. Since then it has been revised for the betterment. The analysis includes 6 dimensions along with various cultural worth.

Power distance index (PDI): Thechiefdimension of the theory is the power distance index. It states that the members of the company who have comparatively low power in the business firm or a group agree upon dissimilar powers issued. In such dimension dissimilar power distribution is appreciated by the one who follows. Here the hierarchy is well defined and applied in the association with no point of doubt, as indicated in the higher level of index. Whereas in case of lower level of index the individuals tend to rise question on the authority and also tries to distribute the power. Here the authority and duties of a person employed is well defined. In Multinational firms it is very popularly observed that the low power distance is applied. The organisation emphasises in more like a family kind of structure.

Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV): The level to which the individuals in the organisation are united in the families is stated in this index. Often societies are unconventional ones which have loose bonds which are usually intact to their close ones only. They tend to focus on either the word ‘I’ or ‘we’ in order to get the work done. Mostly in the western regions, business firms choose Individualism even if the prime aim is to attain same motive. The whole task is parted into various groups in accordance with the role of the work, wherein the groups are to focus on their part of work. The workforce gets a superior opportunity to prove their worth in the organisation in case of individualism. The organisation in all is in charge of the task in case of collectivism which is mostly popular in Asian countries. Here the workforce work jointly and not individually hence, there isn’t any possibility of putting blames on each other in case of detained work or so. This brings out the assisting nature in the individuals. They tend to have close united association between the enlarged families and others. The members within the group are very faithful to each other and in case of dispute with members of other group.

Uncertainty avoidance (UAI): The uncertainty avoidance index states the society’s forbearance for uncertainty, wherein the individuals readily welcomes an unpredicted matter. These kinds of cultures are evolved from the society to the organisation. Some companies even on being prepared for the unfavourable situation still comprehend the degree of uncertainty and come up with the most appropriate way out. They are calm to upcoming bad situations and chose the best possible way out. In case of tasks being done for the first time such a situation is found. Even if the organisation has details and is pre prepared in terms of how to work on a particular project, the result may be different from what was expected but the organisation must be prepared for the outcome. In some business organisation where precision is the core element like German and Japanese companies, wherein they do not allow any sort of negligence in their product. They tend to follow strict rules and standards, by this they gain trust from their potential customers.

Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS): This sort of culture surrounds the kind of management they need. It is quite popularly found in several business firms that doesn’t believe in equality amongst genders and is partial towards male members especially in case of mining sites, construction sites etc. On contrary, organisations in the western countries are more likely to believe in gender equality and are more supportive towards female workforce. In case of masculinity that kind of culture that supports biasness in society for male leadership, heroism, achievement. In Femininity it’s all about being humble, modest, caring towards the employees and the task being done.

 In Ramada, there is least possible biasness; females are given equal importance as that of a male employee. In fact female employees are given more preference at the time of recruitment. It’s a hotel wherein male and female workforce is allotted work accordingly as per the suitability. The organisation takes care of the well being of its employees. It is always motivated to have a supervising quality and hard work is appreciated.

Long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation (LTO): This dimension relates to the link between the past with the present and future activities. The long term orientation focuses on upcoming advantages and more habitual foundation. They primary focus is on repetitive extension and not short term outcomes. In case of short term orientation short gains are of more value. The firmness of the business organisation is appreciated. In developed countries are usually long term orientated and they grow to an end whereas an under developed country are usually short term orientated as they have poor economic development.

Indulgence vs. restraint (IND): In this dimension the level of liberty that is given to the people by the social standards in order to attain their human wants. Indulgence refers to the freedom to satisfy primary and basic wants that is given by the society in terms of enjoyment and entertainment. In case of Restraint the freedom of the people is in the hands of the society.

Deal and Kennedy’s Model

The second very important and popularly used Organisational cultural model is the Deal and Kennedy’s Model. It states the way the task is exactly done in an organisation. The customs of an organisation depends upon various components; this was concluded by several manufacturing units on investigation. There are 6 kinds of cultural components that represent the framework of the organisation.

According to the past of the company, the kind of nature in the organisation and the process in which the culture has developed. The intense traditional worth can lead the elements of the cultural structure. Components like worth, trust, bravery, basic acts like greeting the co workers on arrival and departure, makes a great difference in setting up an organisation’s traditions. On investigating these components over several firms it was discovered that four different types of cultures prevails. It is based on in accordance with the level of threat accepted by the workforce as per the response given to them on their work done.

Tough Guy Macho Culture

The culture in a business firm wherein they are ready to take risk yet the response on their decision is received by them fast. As per the information they gain through their mastery, the risk is motivated in the business firm. This kind of culture is mostly seen in the advertising and entertainment industries, wherein a huge success is attained by taking great risk. Those who like taking chances and are ready to take quick responses can opt for such culture and individuals in this type of culture believes in working and succeeding on its own rather than working in groups. They tend to aim for success in short term. With the possibility of gaining huge yield, it becomes too tiring at times. Industrial section like police force, sports, entertainment, etc are a few examples of this type of culture.

Work Hard Play Hard Culture

This culture states that the level of threat is less yet the response is faster. Here the workforce is likely to accept high level of threats yet the response is quite comprehensive and quick- as in case of sales department. In this dimension one is supposed to be energetic and should be steady in order to get honoured shortly. The group as a whole is cherished as they manage its members in order to discharge a remarkable presentation, by means of contention and inner matches among them in order to encourage its workforce to contribute further to the organisation. Mainly in case of sales department, restaurants, etc this culture is used.

Ramada flourishes in such a way that the workforce group is motivated to put in more effort as a whole. During assignments which are distinctive a huge threat is taken over as the possibility of peril is comparatively more.

Process Culture

Where there is less chances of threat and response is also relaxed, in this case there isn’t room for speedy work and huge gain. Then this culture is known as process culture. Since the response is slow in this case hence, the aim is to keep a check on the procedure as the outcome takes time and errors aren’t allowed here. The task here is done with great superiority and with persistence along with that, happenings from former project is also kept in mind. Sectors like banking sectors, retail sectors and governmental organisation are a few examples of process culture. This is the world of large retailers, banks, insurance companies and government organizations. (This shows similarities with Control Culture as well).

Bet-Your-Company Culture

The bet your company culture is the kind of culture where the threat is huge yet the response is likely to take time. In this case it is very important to take resolution precisely in order to have the worth for a prolonged period of time as it is vital for the upcoming times, the arrangement and investigation. In case of technical provisions the threat factor and the plans are substantial while its formation and in this case the outcome might even take years to show result. Industrial sector like pharmaceutical corporate, oil and gas companies are a part of this culture.

Ramada is huge hotel chain hence; they don’t strive for recompense but for its survival. Therefore, the organisation opts for high threat over its goal and objective of its business.

1.2 Understand your national culture and your chosen organizational culture. Based on your understanding, explain the difference between your national culture and your chosen organizational culture.

The culture of United Arab Emirates (UAE) is similar to that of other countries of Arab; still it’s a different from them in order to grow in the world. With that the norms go a little easy on them conducting to growth though the prime ethics aren’t clashed. UAE has high values for its devotions and for its lifestyle. The lifestyle and heritage is a conduct of Islamic religion which has become combination lifestyles of India, Pakistan and Iran due to exchange of commerce with all these countries.

High priority is given to the education and compassionate efforts; it has commendably grown high in the field of education. Areas like Knowledge Park are in Dubai established only for the reason of promoting knowledge. In case compassion a lot of efforts have been put up in country like Syria and in the region like Palestine.

In the case of examining of national culture in the course of growth, some components which will be for the benefit of the business firm of the country. In UAE the weekends are not restricted to just the normal Saturday and Sunday. But it has one more day included that is Friday, here Fridays are also considered as holiday with many business firms giving offs on Saturdays. Islamic holidays are considered as holidays authorised by law in UAE. With development taking place and by passing of time, for the sake of adjusting with the immigrants in the country UAE now considers first day of January as a holiday authorised by law. As compared to other Arabian countries, UAE is furthermore likely to adapt lifestyles of other nations. It has the maximum number of workforce employed in the country hence; it is employee focused country in comparison to the countries in its surroundings. In order to protect its employees whether belonging to top level or to lower level the nation have its norms and acts applied. A number of norms and laws are applicable in order to make sure that its workforce is secured but the fact is that the nation in which the company is situated has its own ones too which the organisation has to follow too along with that of its own. Because of which the organisation couldn’t put into action its plans for the benefits of its workforce, even though the plans were for its employee’s joy. The organisation has a huge workforce working who have emigrated from more than 36 countries hence the organisation has to know how the culture of the nation where they locate along with that they need to understand their workforce’s culture. The variety of lifestyle generated in the organisation because of the emigrants was amazing to know and was equally complicated for the attainment of goals. There are a lot of distinctions in both the cultures i.e. the national one and the company’s one. The emigrants from Brazil have to bring huge alterations in their behaviour in order to cope with the organisation’s lifestyle in which they work; this is because the organisations in Brazil have an easy going lifestyle. As per the company’s norms the intervals are allowed to the workforce in a little strict manner and are based on the kind of task they perform. The element that the task has to be finished within the given schedule and the lifestyle of individualism are quite important. As the company has to abide by the nations culture too several rules and customs cannot be neglected and has to be applied in terms of lifestyle of locality. Appropriate number of interval required for their worships are to be allowed. Seasonal breaks to be allowed in order to maintain the welfare of the workers. The organisation keeps regards for the nation in which it works by taking into consideration their rules and customs along with the company’s own customs which is very well conveyed to the workforce recruited in that company.

1.3 Analyze the corporate cultural profile in your chosen organization.   

Ramada hotel’s corporate culture is quite strong and unlocked in nature though the prime worth are laid and instructed to its workforce. A powerful lifestyle has been set which helps it to spread its business all over the world and as a result of which it owns a chain of hotels. The complicated features of the organisation have to be considered, in order to examine the lifestyle of the organisation.

In Ramada there isn’t any system in which the workforce has to follow certain way in which they are supposed to communicate in the organisation like the vertical movement, rather the workforce is to free to communicate in whichever direction they feel like as they have free lifestyle. The organisation maintains a system of having a leader wherein each group is lead by a leader and not driven by a boss. The leader tends to lead the group together whereas the boss commands the group. This brings a huge difference in the working environment. The workforce tends to feel secured working under a leader and therefore obtain confidence. The lifestyle of the organisation is such that the post gets the needed honour yet the rest of the workforce doesn’t feel dejected as it doesn’t become overwhelming.

Ramada has well transmitted the excellence and prime worth to its employees as the hotel has chain spread all over the world, if it is closely examined in between the workers of the organisation. The workforce that is recruited has to undergo the teachings by the organisation which is done to make the employees aware of the lifestyle of the company. During this session new trainee get an opportunity to talk about their encounters. Ramada focuses on improving the lifestyle, expanding and be equitable towards its workforce. The organisation appreciates hard work and believes in promoting its employees in accordance with the work performed by them and for that regular investigation is done to improvise accordingly.

The organisation follows the culture of individualism and collectivism wherein the work is divided into groups and that each group become accountable for their own part of work. In this case each particular group has to focus on attaining its own goal making it their only aim. If there arise any issue while attaining the task then the top level management comes forward to assist, though the work is divided into groups but the groups are working for the organisation as a whole hence the top level management takes an initiative.  The organisation must carefully be able to handle its waste and should dispose the same in a proper way, tough norms must be implemented. They maintain a particular group for this work and the members of that group makes sure that wastes are properly handled and in this process the environment is not mistreated. Health camps are held at regular intervals in order to make sure that he workers are fit to work.

1.4 Discuss the impact of your chosen organisation’s corporate culture in achieving its objectives.

It is very important to instruct the newly recruited workforce about the lifestyle of the organisation in which they are to work. It is essential for the every single organisation to consider it to be of utmost importance to properly manage its workforce and supplies. Hence teaching is the best way to convey the lifestyle of the organisation to the workforce; all the elements are taken care as to how to socialise with others and guests of the hotel as well as how to take care of circumstances and lead the team in the worst possible circumstances. The worth and the goal of the organisation are well taken care by conveying it to the workforce. The most important and challenging work for the firm was the lifestyle barricade not just the nation where they exist but also the employees they would hire. In case of Dubai which is well known for employing a large number of employees from all over the world.  More than 70% of the workforces are the immigrants. It is of great provocation to recruit employees from other nations and make they follow the lifestyle of the firm along with that they also motivate them to maintain their own lifestyles and represent their own culture. In this way the Ramada chain of hotels was able to gain goodwill in the eyes of its locality by accepting the local lifestyle.

Putting in efforts into work is considered as vital lifestyle that the firm has brought into action. Examination at regular intervals is important to keep a check on the workforce by which they are to face provocations regularly and it also encourages them to go higher for their benefit, in the organisation. To give better emphasis, schemes like Employee of the month’ was introduced in order to motivate the employees to work efficiently and achieve the title.

Employee’s welfare is taken care well in the organisation by ensuring their safety and fulfilment of their needs. Regular health camps are organised for the workforce and is made sure that all the workers well know about the camps. Safety measures are well instructed at regular intervals.

Learning Outcome 2: Be able to propose organisational values that will influence corporate climate

For this learning outcome 2, choose the organization that you are currently working or has worked. Understand the climate of the organization, organizational values, operational needs of the chosen organization and proceed to answer the questions below.

2.1 Evaluate the existing climate of your chosen organization.

The procedure of calculating the lifestyle of the firm is known as organisation climate. The kind of procedure that the organisation uses is resolved via organisation climate. The way the workers response to changes depending upon the norms inculcated by the organisation, how the employees work. It also studies the circumstances wherein the way the employees respond to particularly. In case of a constructive atmosphere in the organisation the workforce seems motivated and is willing to put effort in order to boost the business whereas in the case of obstructive atmosphere in the organisation the workforce seems down on morale and are less likely to contribute to the business of the organisation as emphasis is given to individualism more and encouragement to work as a whole is less.

The organisational climate of Ramada is quite adjustable as in case of authority and flow of order. Here the workforce is motivated to come up and discuss their point of view with the high level authorities. The subordinates are allowed to put forward their thoughts. The management of the organisation is a mixture of official and unofficial wherein they must be official with its associates while they can conversant unofficially with their workers, among themselves. The belief behind this is that the employees are more likely to enjoy working in the organisation when they find the surrounding to be easy going. Working in such huge hotel become a very tiring at times, some of the days are so hectic with no intervals in between hence the organisation must appreciate the work done by workforce.

Improvising is consistently happening in Ramada as it’s amongst the top most chain of hotels. By keeping in mind their main aim with which it started off its business. Various franchises like Ramada Inn, Ramada Limited, Ramada Plaza, and Ramada Suites are the expansions of Ramada chain of hotel. The objective of the Ramada hotels is the growth of its locality in which it exists and it is achieved by guiding and recruiting the people from the local regions. This gives the organisation a worldwide viewpoint focusing on the growth of the whole world with no biasness. The atmosphere in the organisation is very energetic which is done by appreciation by means of awards and also through giving bonuses once a year. Ramada hotels motivates its workers to their respective culture along with that Ramada hotels follows the local culture in which it exists therefore it follows combined lifestyle.

2.2 Recommend ways to improve corporate climate in your chosen organization.

Ramada hotels is a multi cultured business firm which has around 66 years old of exposure in the market. Since it is believed that no method is perfectly fit for any organisation therefore the need to alter it for the betterment of the organisation.  There are various affairs and actions involved in the operations of the organisation and the fact that none of them are the best hence, it needs to be amended. Ramada has various techniques so as to improvise the organisation’s atmosphere which is done only if it beliefs that the alterations are required. The organisation conveys about its lifestyle to its workforce during training sessions. There is the need of alterations in the manner in which Ramada operates as it is running for over 66 years now. As the time passes the ideals and features of the public differs and in that case the organisation is supposed to accept the alterations. The other places where alterations are required are the rewards and kinds of appreciation given to its workforce must be checked at regular intervals and required alterations must be made. It is stated that Ramada isn’t biased towards its employees yet it’s not true consistently.  It’s the common human character to form an opinion about people that work in the organisation and it mainly initiates from the top management front. But the organisation must comprehend that all the employees must be considered same in their eyes in order to make the employees perceive homely at their workplace. Partiality and nationalism must not be practiced rather the work done must define their worth in the organisation.

In the hotel industry it is usually seen that the way they function is alike until and unless it is properly explained and innovative, it has no much distinction in the operation. The organisation always encourages in putting fresh and better ideas so as to use supplies and information in a better way. This way the organisation attains a lot of tasks.

COSC 1P03 Assignment 2 Abstract Data Types

COSC 1P03 Assignment 2 Abstract Data Types – Colours Due: Friday, June 14th (@5:00pm)

Objective: To produce multiple implementations of an Abstract Data Type.

Background: The idea of Colour is a somewhat abstract concept. Most of us* can understand green, purple, etc., but may not be able to agree on the best way to unambiguously represent them. Actual perceived colours are the result of combining photons of numerous wavelengths (far more complicated than necessary for an adequate colour model). The most common modern approach is to simplify the process by expressing a colour as some combination of red, green, and blue. However, even that is far more complicated than it might seem. For this assignment, you’ll be directly implementing two variations of RGB, and indirectly making use of a third method.


You are to write a class, DoubleColour.java, that will be part of the colours package, and will implement the Colour interface. This class will represent a colour as three double-precision floatingpoint values; one for red, one for green, and one for blue. Each value will be a per-channel intensity scaled from 0.0 to 1.0. Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow can be simulated (as though they were directly stored) as documented in the interface.


You are to write a class, SixteenBitColour.java, that will also be part of the colours package, and mimic the precision of 16-bit colour. For 16-bit, colours are traditionally stored as a twobyte word, but you can just use three integers. The red is represented as an unsigned value (i.e. it’s impossible to be ‘negative-red’), with 5 bits of precision. This means that zero intensity (black in that channel) corresponds to 0, and full red corresponds to 31 (the highest value representable with 5-bits in zero-based unsigned integers). Because the human eye is better at distinguishing between shades of greens than reds or blues, 6 bits are allocated to representing that channel. Thus, instead of ranging from 0 to 31, the green channel ranges from 0 to 63. The third value, blue, is represented in the same way as red. So, to create pure white: new SixteenBitColour(31,63,31) For yellow: new SixteenBitColour(31,63,0) For a greenish-blue: new SixteenBitColour(0,32,31)

24-bit colour

24bit colour is simpler than 16-bit, in that the scale is the same for all three channels. Each channel has a value from 0 to 255 (the highest value representable from 8 bits, in an unsigned integer). You won’t be creating a class based on this model, but will need to know it for the other two, because of a related representation: Hexadecimal. Hexadecimal is a very popular method of expressing colours (particularly

( * Well, there are tens of millions of people with some form of colour blindness or another, but nearly all can still see colours; they simply can’t distinguished particular colours from each other. Also, fun fact: Colour blindness is drastically more common in males. Think of 20 men you know; decent chance one or two of them are colour blind, even if they’ve never mentioned it! in web development, and sometimes in image editors). It’s identical to 24-bit colour except, instead of expressing as a single base-10 value, or three base-10 values, the colour is expressed as a single 6- character hexadecimal value. e.g. Instead of magenta being 255, 0, 255, it could be expressed as FF00FF. There are a multitude of ways to perform the calculations, some of which are built into Java. There’s plenty of info on the subject available online, but we can also talk about it in class. For this assignment, both DoubleColour and SixteenBitColour will need a constructor that accepts a String containing a hexadecimal colour. Additionally, irrespective of the internal representation, both must implement toString such that they return the colour expressed in the same 24bit hexadecimal format.

Requirements: Both implemented colour classes will be immutable. This simply means that, once a colour is created, new variations of it may also be created, but the original can never be modified.

Both classes must have the ability to throw an InvalidColourException if, in their constructors, they are expected to create invalid instances (e.g. a DoubleColour with a red of 1.5, or a SixteenBitColour with a blue of -1).

Both of the implementations (concrete classes) you’ll be writing will implement the Colour interface. The interface specifies the operations that each implementation needs to support. Note that, irrespective of the internal representation, the expected functionality remains the same. e.g. Even if you represent your colour in 16-bit integer form, the getRed() function still returns the red component scaled from 0.0 to 1.0.

The interface specifies certain additional functionalities: •

public Colour mix(Colour c) – create a new Colour that shares properties of both the current Colour and the supplied parameter. Note that, being immutable, the function returns the new, combined colour, but does not modify the original. The easiest way to do this is to use a red that’s halfway between the two original reds (and repeat for green and blue). •

public Colour lighten() – create a new, lighter version of the current colour. Just set each colour channel’s intensity to being halfway between the original value and full intensity (mathematically, this is the same as ‘mixing’ with white). •

public Colour darken() – Same as lighten, but darker. (The easiest way to calculate this is to halve each channel’s intensity) •

public Colour invert() – Formally, the distance from zero intensity will become the distance from full intensity (more pratcially, for DoubleColour as an example, red=1-red, etc.) •

public Colour grey() – Take the average (mean) intensity of the three channels, and set that one value to all three channels in the new colour. • public Color speltPoorly() – Refer to the java api specifications for java.awt.Color. Note that you may not use this function to make the other ones easier to implement. The Color class is to be used only for interacting with external code (like, for example, the supplied Demo class) Note: Be very careful when working with SixteenBitColour, due to the differing ranges for the channels! In particular, the grey() function might be a nuisance!

Testing: There will be two phases of testing/demonstration: A test harness and a demo program. Test Harness: You must write this. It’s up to you to demonstrate proper functionality, including appropriate use of exceptions, different constructors, and interoperability between SixteenBitColour’s and DoubleColours for the mix function. Just use several System.out.println commands to display the results of hardcoded tests. Try to be thorough. Remember that you’re verifying the functionality of individual components, before trying them out in a full system.

Demonstration: Provided is Demo.java. Note that Demo.java is not part of the same package! This was intentional, so do not add the package line to the top of it. If you wrote your implementations correctly, then all you’ll need to do is compile it along with your classes, and it will run perfectly (and have lotsa buttons and stuff!). Submission:

Submission is electronic only. Create a single folder on your Z: drive (say, Assign2). All of your source files will go into this folder. Also include a sample execution of your test harness in this folder. Next, connect to sandcastle: • From Windows: ◦ Use PuTTY to connect to sandcastle.cosc.brocku.ca • From Linux: ◦ Use SSH to connect to sandcastle.cosc.brocku.ca Navigate to your submission folder (e.g. cd Assign2). Run the submission script: submit1p03 Make sure you tell it the correct assignment you’re submitting for.



The Research, Copy, and Proofing

Explore Google’s process of moving to Mobile First Indexing using reputable sources listed in Weeks 3 and 4 content and through your own research.

How did Google work before Mobile First? What is and why does Google use Mobile First Indexing? Why did it take so long for Google to go to Mobile First indexing? Is Google moving toward any other way of indexing content? Why? Start organizing your research, and create a 400-600 word blog article that would explain the terms “SEO,” “Mobile First Indexing,” “Algorithms” and any other key terms you deem important to allow your mom (dad, sibling or coworker–pick 1 target audience!) who does not understand digital marketing, to understand these terms. You may tailor this to your workplace or non-profit—is your website ready for mobile first indexing?

Use this week’s sources and at least 1 other current (less than 6 months) reputable article or blog Use active links within your blog article. Ensure it is tight, polished and proofed so you could post it to your LinkedIn account or personal, public blog.

Be prepared to share this in a Break-out in Week 3.

PART 2: The Visual and Final Version

After the breakout session, you may revise your article. Do so. Create a visual to go with this article using PowerPoint or a free graphic app such as www.canva.com. It could be a timeline, process map, or other infographic, formatted either for Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter, that can deliver complicated information easily.

Be sure to cite (link) the sources in both the article and the visual. Consider using the Layout tab in Word and consider how you are positioning or wrapping the text around your visual. Again, think more about a blog post or webpage than a “paper.”

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