Data structures and Algorithms

How can one master Data structures and Algorithms easily?

In Computer Science, you need to study a lot of subjects in your entire curriculum, but Data structure and Algorithm is one of the most important subjects. In campus placements or any interview, you will always have the upper hand if you have a proper insight into these subjects. Data structures and Algorithms are the rudiments of your logical and problem-solving abilities. Most of the product based companies generally look for persons who are well-versed in the data structure. So, if you want to brag a handsome salary after your graduation, then you are in the correct place. Stay with us till the last line since we will tell you some excellent tips to master Data structure and Algorithm easily.

  1. Find your purpose


Before starting, you should always ask yourself why you need to study this!

Your answer may be “To pass in the exam.”

But that is not the only reason. Suppose you want to go to your school from your house, and you take the shortest route while your friend takes some other route. In this case, you are the smarter one since, unknowingly, you have already applied algorithms in your day to day life.

“Reading data structure and algorithm will not only help you to pass in the exam but will also help you to become smarter if you implement them correctly.”

2. Understand the basic concepts


Don’t mug up and read the subjects in a proper sequence, as mentioned in the preface of any standard book. By this approach, you will get to know the shortcomings of the prior one and why the later one was invented. Topics like Stack, queue, Linked lists, Hash map, Binary tree, AVL tree, and different searching and sorting algorithms should be adequately grasped.



a. Data structure using C by Reema Thereja                                                                     

b. Introduction to design an algorithm by Anany Levitin


a. Geeks for Geeks.

b. StackOverflow.

3. Hands-on your knowledge


After learning, try to “hands-on” your concepts in any language in which you are comfortable. If you do some practical stuff, then it helps you to remember it for a long time.

4. Avoid using Python in the beginning.

Most of you may dislike this point, but it is a fact. Python offers a lot of built-in functions, which helps to shorten your code. Still, in the beginning, if you are provided with these facilities, then you will not learn the main algorithms of sorting and searching, and your necessary foundation may become weak. It is advisable to use C or C++ initially, and later on, while developing your skills in competitive programming, you can use Python.

5. Always search for the best and efficient approach.


This is the most important tip since your algorithm’s objective should always be to reduce the time complexity and should have the best approach.

For example, Binary search is always faster than linear search if your array is sorted.

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General Environment/Generic Portion of an Industry Analysis on GENERAL MOTORS

Company History and Overview

In 2009, General Motors got incorporated in Delaware. Its most famous brands are Chevrolet, Buick, Holden, Baojun, Opel, Cadillac, GMC, and Vauxhall. It is an international company that operates in North America, South America, Africa, the Middle East, and the Asia Pacific. Its headquarters are located in Detroit, Michigan, United States. It provides to its customers automobile parts, cars, crossovers, automotive financing services, and trucks. Its customers include rental car firms, leasing firms, commercial fleet purchasers, and governments through direct or indirect routes.

Because of the large size of the company and the different nature of goods and services provided it comes under multiple industries. Multiple NAICS and SIC codes apply to this business. These are provided below:

General Environment (External) Analysis

Since the distribution of COVID19 vaccines, the sales of the automotive industry in the US have started recovering and going up. Soon, electric vehicles will be more prevalent along with self-driving cars.

It is predicted that the market size of global automotive motors will rise to USD 25,719 million by 2025 while currently, it is USD 20,321 million (according to 2020 data). Fuel efficient technology will highly affect the demand for hybrid electric vehicles and battery vehicles. Automotive companies now focus on connectivity of vehicles and electrical functioning instead of performance, safety, stability, and fuel efficiency.

Brazil and Russia are expected to recover at a faster rate while China’s growth rate is predicted to continue. With the fast transformation in the industry trends, brands would face challenges in keeping up. Investment in new and innovative models and technologies which can produce low cost and high-cost automobiles is required. One of the causes of relatively slower growth can be regulatory and legal factors.

The above chart shows General Motor’s total net sales and revenue’s quarterly data from 2015 to 2020. The maximum level was reached in 2016 and has been declining since then, the lowest in 2020.

 Herfindahl index for NAICS Code #

(Source: Census Bureau: concentration ratios and the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index)

(Source: Statista)

HHI value below 1000 represents unconcentrated markets, between 1000 and 1800 represents moderately concentrated markets, and above 1800 represents highly concentrated markets.

It is seen that the automobiles category is having a four-firm concentration ratio. This shows that four large firms strongly dominate the market. In the US, the three dominating firms are Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler.


PoliticalRegulation of emissionsTrade war will affect the firm in the market of China  Weakness
EconomicIncreasing disposable income Interest rate riskThreat
Socio-CulturalSafetyDriving becoming popular Self-driving carsStrength
TechnologyIncreasing connectivitySelf-driving carsOpportunity/Threat
DemographicFamily sizeMillennial choicesStrength
GlobalRegulationEco-friendly products  Weakness/Threat


The most important markets for General Motors having strategic significance are the US and China. The legal policies are more complex in China and make it difficult for companies to enter the Chinese market. Yet General Motors has entered China with success using a partnership with the SAIC motors. The business in China will be affected by the trade war between the US and China. The UK business will also be impacted by Brexit.


Economic factors like the GDP of a nation, and unemployment, impact the businesses existing there. For instance, the active market of the US has provided increased sales for automobiles. The level of unemployment affects the purchasing power of consumers and hence the sales for the firms.

The variation in currency prices also impacts the sales of brands.


The changes in social and cultural factors lead to change in the demand patterns. For instance, millennials prefer attractive, high-tech, cost-efficient, and good looking cars. The spread of the virus has also affected the sales of the automobiles.


AI, self-driving, and virtual reality are the new technologies brands like General Motors are focusing on. Environment friendly, safe, and connected automobiles are being manufactured. The rise in competition leads to a rise in research and technological investments.


Demographic factors affect the demand patterns for automobiles. For instance, family size, an individual belonging to a larger family demands larger and safer cars. The recessionary pressures on consumers also impact sales. The specif choices of millennials also impact the demand like demand for better technology and stylish choices.


Regulation and environment-friendly automobiles preference are the two features of all government policies for the industry. The R&D expenditure of GM has been increased. The newly developed electric battery cells of GM are said to last for above 400 miles, this puts pressure on Tesla.

Summary of PESTDG

The use of automobiles is common these days. Fuel-efficient cars have now become affordable. Increased use of vehicles but has negative impacts on the environment making us switch to the electric vehicles in near future.

5 Forces Model

First, you should show the summary of the level of the 5 Forces in a Graphic. 2 Examples you can consider using are as follows:

After the Graphics, then write a paragraph to explain the summary/your conclusions about each force, including an overall summary paragraph.

The threat of New Entrants

New entrants in the automobile industry have to face a lot of competition from the existing firms. The existing automobile brands like GM, Tesla, and so on are much larger and have a huge production capacity. They also have are existing customer base. This makes it difficult for new firms to enter. The presence of legal and technological barriers further decreases the threat.

Threat of Substitutes

GM faces a moderate level of threat of substitutes. This is because the automobile firms do not just face competition from other brands but also the public transport facilities. The rental companies like Uber also compete with automobile manufacturers and limit their sales with the increased use of such services.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The suppliers of raw materials have very limited bargaining power. Huge brands like GM depend upon several suppliers and not just one supplier. This is because the firm does not want to face any shortages or delays. The suppliers are relatively small firms and the number of substitute suppliers available is large. This causes the bargaining power of suppliers to be really low.

Bargaining Power of Customers

The purchasers of automobiles have high bargaining power because of the existence of a large number of substitutes in the market. The government policies have been favouring the consumer demands, and the amount of information available to the consumers has also increased significantly.

Competitive Rivalry

As discussed in the threat of substitutes, the number of substitutes in the automobiles market is very large. These include other brands as well as public transport. This causes competition to increase. The government has been constantly trying to improve the public transport system. It is focusing on environment-friendly methods and technical advancement.

This increase in competitive rivalry has caused the costs of operation for GM to increase. This increase is required for technological changes, increased advertising and marketing, and providing quality customer care. At least twelve competing firms exist in the international market for GM. These include Ford, FCA and VW which are in itself large firms with huge market shares. This increased pressure causes GM to emphasize on research and technological advancement.

Summary of 5 Forces Model

The level of competition faced by General Motors is high. This is because of the competing firms being strong. Porter’s Five Forces analysis has concluded the following five forces according to the features of the automobile industry:

  • Competition-Strong force
  • Buyers’ and consumers’ bargaining power-Moderate force
  • Suppliers’ bargaining power—Weak force
  • Substitutes’ threat-Moderate force
  • New entrants’ threat-Moderate force


Generic Strategy Analysis

The earnings of General Motors has significantly declined but the crossovers, trucks of full-size, and the Cadillac brand still have a huge and increasing share in the market. Two-full size pickup models of General Motors earned 37% of the share of the full-size truck market in 2019. These two brands are the Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra. In 2018, they made a 36% share. 390,000 vehicles of Cadillac were sold in 2019 internationally seeing a growth rate of 8.8% from 2018. 156,000 vehicles were sold in the US. The Cadillac and full-size pickups provide greater margins than other vehicles sold by General Motors.

This performance level of General Motors is expected to continue. The sales of EVs (electrical vehicles) is expected to rise by 36% YoY. This has increased the stock price of Tesla by 263% year to date being the leading producer of electric vehicles. This increased demand for EVs in future has made the competing firms like GM to make electric vehicles too. GM is expected to invest $20 billion which is 15% of its 2019 revenue through 2025 in EVs.

Out of this investment, $2.2 billion is being spent by General Motors at Detroit-Hamtramck facility to form the first assembly plant for EV alone. A diversity of pickups and SUVs are predicted to be produced at this facility. General Motors has scheduled its first all-electric pickup at the end of 2021.

The collaboration of GM with Honda has enhanced its EV production and battery technology. Honda is planning to manufacture two brand new EVs which will be produced in the EV platform of General Motors. This shows the high-quality level of General Motor’s EV manufacturing.

This manufacturing of EVs can help GM to increase its long term share in the market. The plan of switching 30% of the vehicles to electric battery and motor, GM will be able to dominate the market when the consumers are switching to EVs. This focus on the long term will cause the short term benefits to decrease. It still has the advantage of being able to produce EVs and selling it at good prices even while earning profits.

Concluding Comments

General Motors is amongst the largest firms across the globe. It is one of the leading manufacturers in the automotive industry. It is the biggest global producers of trucks and cars. It competes with Ford Motor Company, Honda, Nissan, Toyota, and others (Pelfrey, 2006).

Legal, currency, and interest rate risks are some of the many risks faced by the company. The firm is on a risky path right now of bringing Cruze, its small car. To enhance the performance of the firm, General Motors is producing new models (Roe, 2002).

There exists a chance that the firm will merge with some other firm. Thus, the firm should become active instead of waiting. It has been encouraging the flexible fuel vehicles’ production, that is also environment friendly. This move does not only increase the sales of the firm but also enhances its image in public.

Consumers today want to purchase environment-friendly products. General Motors has been attempting on increasing their production. Use of renewable energy is made by the firm to lessen the emissions. It has also formed guidelines for saving the environment and also has a website for increasing public awareness.