General Environment/Generic Portion of an Industry Analysis on GENERAL MOTORS

Company History and Overview

In 2009, General Motors got incorporated in Delaware. Its most famous brands are Chevrolet, Buick, Holden, Baojun, Opel, Cadillac, GMC, and Vauxhall. It is an international company that operates in North America, South America, Africa, the Middle East, and the Asia Pacific. Its headquarters are located in Detroit, Michigan, United States. It provides to its customers automobile parts, cars, crossovers, automotive financing services, and trucks. Its customers include rental car firms, leasing firms, commercial fleet purchasers, and governments through direct or indirect routes.

Because of the large size of the company and the different nature of goods and services provided it comes under multiple industries. Multiple NAICS and SIC codes apply to this business. These are provided below:

General Environment (External) Analysis

Since the distribution of COVID19 vaccines, the sales of the automotive industry in the US have started recovering and going up. Soon, electric vehicles will be more prevalent along with self-driving cars.

It is predicted that the market size of global automotive motors will rise to USD 25,719 million by 2025 while currently, it is USD 20,321 million (according to 2020 data). Fuel efficient technology will highly affect the demand for hybrid electric vehicles and battery vehicles. Automotive companies now focus on connectivity of vehicles and electrical functioning instead of performance, safety, stability, and fuel efficiency.

Brazil and Russia are expected to recover at a faster rate while China’s growth rate is predicted to continue. With the fast transformation in the industry trends, brands would face challenges in keeping up. Investment in new and innovative models and technologies which can produce low cost and high-cost automobiles is required. One of the causes of relatively slower growth can be regulatory and legal factors.

The above chart shows General Motor’s total net sales and revenue’s quarterly data from 2015 to 2020. The maximum level was reached in 2016 and has been declining since then, the lowest in 2020.

 Herfindahl index for NAICS Code #

(Source: Census Bureau: concentration ratios and the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index)

(Source: Statista)

HHI value below 1000 represents unconcentrated markets, between 1000 and 1800 represents moderately concentrated markets, and above 1800 represents highly concentrated markets.

It is seen that the automobiles category is having a four-firm concentration ratio. This shows that four large firms strongly dominate the market. In the US, the three dominating firms are Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler.

PESTDG ANALYSIS CHART

DimensionDescriptionSWOT
PoliticalRegulation of emissionsTrade war will affect the firm in the market of China  Weakness
EconomicIncreasing disposable income Interest rate riskThreat
Socio-CulturalSafetyDriving becoming popular Self-driving carsStrength
TechnologyIncreasing connectivitySelf-driving carsOpportunity/Threat
DemographicFamily sizeMillennial choicesStrength
GlobalRegulationEco-friendly products  Weakness/Threat

Political

The most important markets for General Motors having strategic significance are the US and China. The legal policies are more complex in China and make it difficult for companies to enter the Chinese market. Yet General Motors has entered China with success using a partnership with the SAIC motors. The business in China will be affected by the trade war between the US and China. The UK business will also be impacted by Brexit.

Economic

Economic factors like the GDP of a nation, and unemployment, impact the businesses existing there. For instance, the active market of the US has provided increased sales for automobiles. The level of unemployment affects the purchasing power of consumers and hence the sales for the firms.

The variation in currency prices also impacts the sales of brands.

Socio-Cultural

The changes in social and cultural factors lead to change in the demand patterns. For instance, millennials prefer attractive, high-tech, cost-efficient, and good looking cars. The spread of the virus has also affected the sales of the automobiles.

Technological

AI, self-driving, and virtual reality are the new technologies brands like General Motors are focusing on. Environment friendly, safe, and connected automobiles are being manufactured. The rise in competition leads to a rise in research and technological investments.

Demographic

Demographic factors affect the demand patterns for automobiles. For instance, family size, an individual belonging to a larger family demands larger and safer cars. The recessionary pressures on consumers also impact sales. The specif choices of millennials also impact the demand like demand for better technology and stylish choices.

Global

Regulation and environment-friendly automobiles preference are the two features of all government policies for the industry. The R&D expenditure of GM has been increased. The newly developed electric battery cells of GM are said to last for above 400 miles, this puts pressure on Tesla.

Summary of PESTDG

The use of automobiles is common these days. Fuel-efficient cars have now become affordable. Increased use of vehicles but has negative impacts on the environment making us switch to the electric vehicles in near future.

5 Forces Model

First, you should show the summary of the level of the 5 Forces in a Graphic. 2 Examples you can consider using are as follows:

After the Graphics, then write a paragraph to explain the summary/your conclusions about each force, including an overall summary paragraph.

The threat of New Entrants

New entrants in the automobile industry have to face a lot of competition from the existing firms. The existing automobile brands like GM, Tesla, and so on are much larger and have a huge production capacity. They also have are existing customer base. This makes it difficult for new firms to enter. The presence of legal and technological barriers further decreases the threat.

Threat of Substitutes

GM faces a moderate level of threat of substitutes. This is because the automobile firms do not just face competition from other brands but also the public transport facilities. The rental companies like Uber also compete with automobile manufacturers and limit their sales with the increased use of such services.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The suppliers of raw materials have very limited bargaining power. Huge brands like GM depend upon several suppliers and not just one supplier. This is because the firm does not want to face any shortages or delays. The suppliers are relatively small firms and the number of substitute suppliers available is large. This causes the bargaining power of suppliers to be really low.

Bargaining Power of Customers

The purchasers of automobiles have high bargaining power because of the existence of a large number of substitutes in the market. The government policies have been favouring the consumer demands, and the amount of information available to the consumers has also increased significantly.

Competitive Rivalry

As discussed in the threat of substitutes, the number of substitutes in the automobiles market is very large. These include other brands as well as public transport. This causes competition to increase. The government has been constantly trying to improve the public transport system. It is focusing on environment-friendly methods and technical advancement.

This increase in competitive rivalry has caused the costs of operation for GM to increase. This increase is required for technological changes, increased advertising and marketing, and providing quality customer care. At least twelve competing firms exist in the international market for GM. These include Ford, FCA and VW which are in itself large firms with huge market shares. This increased pressure causes GM to emphasize on research and technological advancement.

Summary of 5 Forces Model

The level of competition faced by General Motors is high. This is because of the competing firms being strong. Porter’s Five Forces analysis has concluded the following five forces according to the features of the automobile industry:

  • Competition-Strong force
  • Buyers’ and consumers’ bargaining power-Moderate force
  • Suppliers’ bargaining power—Weak force
  • Substitutes’ threat-Moderate force
  • New entrants’ threat-Moderate force

 

Generic Strategy Analysis

The earnings of General Motors has significantly declined but the crossovers, trucks of full-size, and the Cadillac brand still have a huge and increasing share in the market. Two-full size pickup models of General Motors earned 37% of the share of the full-size truck market in 2019. These two brands are the Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra. In 2018, they made a 36% share. 390,000 vehicles of Cadillac were sold in 2019 internationally seeing a growth rate of 8.8% from 2018. 156,000 vehicles were sold in the US. The Cadillac and full-size pickups provide greater margins than other vehicles sold by General Motors.

This performance level of General Motors is expected to continue. The sales of EVs (electrical vehicles) is expected to rise by 36% YoY. This has increased the stock price of Tesla by 263% year to date being the leading producer of electric vehicles. This increased demand for EVs in future has made the competing firms like GM to make electric vehicles too. GM is expected to invest $20 billion which is 15% of its 2019 revenue through 2025 in EVs.

Out of this investment, $2.2 billion is being spent by General Motors at Detroit-Hamtramck facility to form the first assembly plant for EV alone. A diversity of pickups and SUVs are predicted to be produced at this facility. General Motors has scheduled its first all-electric pickup at the end of 2021.

The collaboration of GM with Honda has enhanced its EV production and battery technology. Honda is planning to manufacture two brand new EVs which will be produced in the EV platform of General Motors. This shows the high-quality level of General Motor’s EV manufacturing.

This manufacturing of EVs can help GM to increase its long term share in the market. The plan of switching 30% of the vehicles to electric battery and motor, GM will be able to dominate the market when the consumers are switching to EVs. This focus on the long term will cause the short term benefits to decrease. It still has the advantage of being able to produce EVs and selling it at good prices even while earning profits.

Concluding Comments

General Motors is amongst the largest firms across the globe. It is one of the leading manufacturers in the automotive industry. It is the biggest global producers of trucks and cars. It competes with Ford Motor Company, Honda, Nissan, Toyota, and others (Pelfrey, 2006).

Legal, currency, and interest rate risks are some of the many risks faced by the company. The firm is on a risky path right now of bringing Cruze, its small car. To enhance the performance of the firm, General Motors is producing new models (Roe, 2002).

There exists a chance that the firm will merge with some other firm. Thus, the firm should become active instead of waiting. It has been encouraging the flexible fuel vehicles’ production, that is also environment friendly. This move does not only increase the sales of the firm but also enhances its image in public.

Consumers today want to purchase environment-friendly products. General Motors has been attempting on increasing their production. Use of renewable energy is made by the firm to lessen the emissions. It has also formed guidelines for saving the environment and also has a website for increasing public awareness.

Economics Assignment Solution Tips

Edumanta

Tips to study Economics virtually

Economics is a complex subject, its not just concept based but also mathematical and application-based.

Due to the pandemic, everything has become virtual and online. Schools and college classrooms have become just a new tab on our computers now. So when it comes to studying economics at home, it becomes a little difficult since its not just about concept, it involves numerical, graphs and whatnot.

So, here are some tricks to help to understand economics better in the comfort of your home.

  1. Try to understand the concept on your own before it has been taught at school.

When you do this practice, you are well prepared for your class and you will be able to answer questions in the class, which boosts your confidence.

  • Youtube videos and PPTs.

We live in the internet generation, where everything is available in one-click.

Many such youtube videos are there which will help you understand the topics better.

  • Connect Economics to real life.

Read about your country’s economy and try to apply your concepts here. This might not seem useful but it really sharpens your skills and will surely help you in being more aware of your subject.

  • Helping with your assignments.

You can always ask your teachers and mentors for guidance and doubts but now we present you with a platform just to help with assignments and doubts. At Edumanta, you don’t have to worry about your assignments or any sort of doubts, we have experts to provide you with original solutions. Visit https://assignmenthelp.edumanta.com/ to make studies simpler and fun.

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Data Science Assignment Tips

How to successfully write Data Science Assignment?

Where will I come across Data Science assignments?
As a college student, if you are pursuing a degree in Computer Science, Economics, MBA, Statistics, or any related field, you will be coming across the subject of Data Science. In simple terms, Data Science involves using various computational software to draw insights from a dataset. Understanding the data for making decisions is one of the prime characteristics expected from a Data Scientist.

Personal and Professional Skill Sets
As a student aspiring to write and solve a Data Science assignment successfully, one must develop some personal and professional skill sets. It would help if you had a curious mindset, ask yourself whether you are excited to know what this dataset speaks of. You should have the ability to question; this will immediately give you a context to analyze and framing your report. Your curious mind is essential for a good data science assignment. You have to pay heed to minute details, have clarity of understanding. Along with the knowledge in statistics, what is also required is your ability to communicate your results.

Getting Started with the Assignment
When you get an assignment in Data Science, the first thing that you should do is read the questions thoroughly. Some assignments might ask you to be creative; some may ask you to be very specific. Understanding what has been asked for is of utmost importance. This overview would set your path to solving the assignment. Right after this, you, as a student, should immediately recollect the concepts and methodologies that you might need to solve the questions. Drill down to specific concepts, and then finally decide the tool or software that you would like to use.

Before starting to solve the assignment, begin by exploring the dataset that has been given. We prefer using R. There are many packages in R that help you get an exploratory overview of the dataset delivered. Check for invalid data, missing data, and any outliers or errors present in the dataset. Correcting them before the assignment is very important. Understand the type of variables that have been used whether the data is a categorical, nominal, ratio scale, interval scale, ordinal. Understanding the kind of variables will help you in analysis and also visualization. You might want to try creating some basic visualizations as well before getting into the analysis.

Analyzing the dataset
Stick to the basic concepts and start solving the questions. One major question that arises in students’ minds is the clarity of which is the dependent variable and an independent variable. This typically becomes important while running regressions. Be through with standard statistical tests and how they are to be performed using the software. Pay extra attention to units of measurement of variables. Ordinal variables and coded variables typically become a bit complex during interpretation. Make sure to take care of this.
Communicating the results
Communicating your findings is of great importance. This means you have to pay heed to the interpretation of your data analysis results. Keep it short and to the point. Try connecting the interpretation with a write-up on how it is linked to the variables into consideration. This is where you might need some help initially from experts. The report writing contributes significantly to your marks. With experience comes the ability to join the dots between statistical results and real variable based analysis based on that. Make sure the report is well-formatted.

Challenges we may help you with
Students, at times, are unable to relate the theory and concepts with the dataset questions given. When exactly to go for a logit model, or which variables are to be used when you want to run a Chi-Square test in a dataset, is what experts can help you with. As you solve more questions, you will gain confidence. Report writing is another aspect where initially you might take help from experts. Once you get to rectify the errors you are making or see the examples of useful reports, you will eventually get the hang of what is expected of a data science assignment.

Your Future
Whether you solve it on your own or take help, Data Science assignments given at the college level is of great importance for a successful career ahead. So make sure to get it solved even if you alone cannot do it. It will be a game-changer directly or indirectly to your bright future.
So if you are still finding it difficult to adjust your skills to finish your assignments on time, we at Edumanta have a team of experts and educators who will guide you through your assignments. We assure you the best quality assignments and even better a fast delivery. Not just guiding you through solving assignments, but we also offer online tutoring 24*7 service. You will grace through with flying marks, gain knowledge, and eventually pave your way for a successful career ahead. Visit: https://assignmenthelp.edumanta.com/

How to improve your grades in college

Effective methods to improve your memory
“Memory is the treasury and guardian of all things and is the most powerful weapon.”

So, is it possible to improve your memory? If you’ve ever found yourself forgetting where you left your mobile or blanking out information on necessary tests, you probably wish that your mind was a bit better. Genetics plays a role in memory loss. However, research has shown that diet and lifestyle have a significant impact on memory too.
Here are nine scientifically proved and evidence-based tips to increase your memory naturally

  1. Make time for Meditation.
    Meditation calms down our body and mind and helps us to think precisely. Research suggests meditation may increase grey matter in the brain and improve spatial working memory. If You can’t meditate, then close your eyes and start back-counting from 1000-1.
  2. Focus Your attention
    Pay attention while studying, and try to avoid distractions. At first, its a bit tough, but through practice, you will be able to acquire it.
  3. Visualize Concepts
    An experiment shows that if we visually perceive anything, then it remains in our brain for long. So, try to make mnemonics and figures while studying or working.
  4. Take breaks in between and get adequate sleep.
    The brain is similar to a machine. So, please give it some rest to increase its efficiency. Research has shown that taking a nap after learning something new can help you learn faster and remember better.
  5. Rehearse and relate new information to things that You already know
    Revision plays a vital role in recalling stuff readily. By establishing relationships between new ideas and previously existing memories, you can dramatically increase the likelihood of remembering the recently learned information.
  6. Eat a balanced diet
    Your diet plays an essential role in improving your memory. Eat less added sugar, avoid spicy and oily food. Eat green veggies, fruits, and milk as much as possible. Research has shown that almonds nourish the white matter in our brain, and Vitamin D is also an essential nutrient that plays many vital roles in the body.
    Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to a host of health issues, including a reduction in cognitive function. Consuming a diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods may help improve your memory.
    1. Exercise
      Exercise brings incredible benefits for your whole body, including your brain. Even moderate exercise for short periods has been shown to improve cognitive performance, including memory, across all age groups. Obesity is a risk factor for cognitive decline. Maintaining a body mass index within the normal range may help you avoid a host of obesity issues, including an imperfect memory.
    2. Train Your brain
      Exercising your cognitive skills by playing brain games like chess, crosswords, Soduku, etc. is a fun and effective way to boost your memory. Games that challenge your brain may strengthen your mind and may even reduce the risk of dementia.
      1. Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol
        Alcohol and tobacco have neurotoxic effects on the brain, including reducing memory performance. Occasional moderate drinking isn’t an issue, but binge drinking can damage your hippocampus, a key area of your brain associated with memory.

Edumanta provides a mentor who can guide You in a better way.
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What Assignment help play critical role.

           What is the importance of an assignment?

The first thing that comes to our mind when we hear about the assignment is that it is a complete waste of time. Writing assignment is something, which is almost disliked by every individual reading this blog. However, this concept is entirely wrong. Teachers deliver the necessary knowledge and information to students, which helps them understand the topics related to various subjects. As a teacher, it is not acceptable behavior to present everything to their students and pamper them. This effectively harms the learning competencies of students, and thus education becomes meaningless to them. Therefore, with the help of assignments and homework, students are expected to learn at home. Many of us might still question why we are given assignments, and what is the primary purpose behind it?

Well, let me tell you some positive aspects of an assignment.
• It helps You to invest your time wisely.
• It allows You to explore more topics in-depth, which standard classroom time doesn’t permit.
• It helps to maintain continuity in your studies and provides an excellent medium to revise your subjects before the exam.
• Teaches you to work independently and to take responsibility for your work.
• It helps you deal with deadlines in a real-life scenario and teaches You to use your time effectively by building a proper schedule.
• It lets you learn how to use tools such as E-books, research materials, and computer software to find knowledge and implement it smartly.
• Teaches You to implement your knowledge outside the book
• It gives You a feel for your real exam and trains you to do better in the
review.
• The primary purpose of assignments is to increase the learning capabilities of students. The more we use our brains, the more they develop. This is a proven scientific fact, and this is the principle behind giving extremely creative and involving assignments to the students. Students learn a lot more when they read or practice something by themselves.

If you still think that assignment is a total waste of time, then its time to change your thoughts if you want to succeed in your future. An assignment is a needful and an essential part of our education, and it’s better to adapt it instead of opposing it. It may be challenging to adjust the skills initially, so Edumanta brings you top-tutors and mentors who will guide You to solve your assignment. We provide a 24×7 service. We also have the facilities of online tutoring where you can ask your doubts regarding your assignment.
You can visit https://assignmenthelp.edumanta.com/, and everything will be a cakewalk for you.

How to Write Good Assignment

12 Tips for writing a well scoring assignment?

“The deadline of this Assignment is tomorrow.”

This statement often haunts us with several questions.

  • How to complete it within time?
  • What to write, and how shall I proceed?
  • How to get good marks? etc

So don’t PANIC. We will provide you some excellent tips to score well in your assignment. Read this carefully until the last line if you want to make a beautiful impression towards your teacher and improve your grades.

Before Starting

    “You start, and you move one step towards success.”

 1. Read the question carefully

        It often happens that the question is a bit tricky to confuse the students, so do some reading from other resources similar to your assignment to gain valuable insights into the topic

2. Check the deadline and plan your schedule

Stick posts in your calendar or use any app that can add a “countdown” to your phone.

      Try to break this entire time into manageable chunks and try scheduling smaller deadlines; this helps you to nullify any extra delay in the meantime

3.Plan the overall structure or backbone

      Make a prototype of your assignment which will include the key points

4. Ask for help if You need

     Don’t shy to ask your tutor for any doubts. It’s better to clarify it at the start than to re-write in the last few days

While Writing

5.Introduction

   Your first paragraph should introduce your key argument and critical aspects of the question. This is an integral part of your assignment-“First impression is the last impression.”

6. Frame Your argument

 while writing the body provide statistical evidence or empirical results to support your case.

7. Make sure to use a formal tone and correct words

   Every university, school, college has its style guide. It would be best if you always used a neutral and professional tone while writing an assignment. Slangs and colloquial language should be avoided

8. Don’t beat around the bush

   It’s a common tendency of students to fill the gap with rubbish. That should not be the case.”To the point,” answers are always better than an irrelevant voluminous answer. If You want you can add figures or mathematical plots relevant to your answer

9.Conclusion  

     Your conclusion has to take a definite stand and summarize all your argument leaving the last impression to your reader

After Finishing

10. Make sure you have answered all of the questions

   Sometimes it happens that the students overlook and miss certain sub-questions or any extension of a particular question. Read each paragraph, assess whether it answers the question, and check whether it contributes to your overall argument

11. Check and double-check your spelling and word counts if mentioned

  Spelling mistakes give a terrible impression, and sometimes it may eclipse your central concept. So you can turn on your spell-checker and your word count too to keep a track

12. Give references to get rid of plagiarism

   References should be along the guideline provided by your institute and avoid blindly “copy-pasting” the stuff.

So it’s challenging to nurture these skills and to apply it on your own. EduManta provides you with the top-tutor who will guide you in completing your assignment. If you have forgotten to start your homework and need to submit as soon as possible, then EduManta is the savior. It has a 24×7 service and can also provide you the best solution for your assignment even at the 11th hour and guarantees the answer to be plagiarism-free. We offer affordable services and timely delivery. We are very much authentic and won’t take the remuneration until and unless you get good marks.

“Investment in Education pays the best Interest.”

So if You want to apply these skills and to get good marks in your assignment. Then visit https://assignmenthelp.edumanta.com/

Online Essay Writing Help

        Guide on how to write good essays

In the 21st Century, the students’ workload is increasing, and study hours are on the increase to cover the syllabus. Students are pressurized to mug-up stuff, and they are losing their creativity to “think out of the box.” So, essay writing has become a daunting affair for most of us, but essay writing is not only comfortable but also a beautiful part of our education. Since “Nothing listens as well as a blank page.”

So don’t WORRY. We will provide you some excellent tips to write a good essay. Read this carefully until the last line to be a good writer.

Before You Begin

1.pick a topic and do some research

   Read some article or books relevant to your subject to have a better grasp and highlight the keywords in the question so that you won’t deviate from it

2. Write an outline

    The outline should be like mentioned below and make separate paragraphs for each.

  • Introduction and thesis statement
  • Body 
  • Conclusion

Expert tips!

  “The best way to sketch the outline is to throw ‘wh’ questions to the topic.”

After starting

3.Create a thesis statement

  It would be best if you told the reader about the purpose of your essay. It must state the topic and the main argument, and it should act as the “steering” of your essay

4.Introduction

  Make the introduction fascinating by using relevant quotes or dialogues. It should be exciting to capture the attention of the reader. Don’t make it too long and dull since “The first impression is the last impression.”

5.Body 

 This is the central part of your essay that you are supposed to explain, describe, or argue. Here You should write the main ideas, each in separate paragraphs.

 Expert tips!

  • Don’t beat around the bush
  • Don’t deviate from the topic
  • Don’t sway to and fro in case of an argumentative topic.
  • Don’t use fancy words if you are not confident.
  • Use quotes, statistical details, and evidence to look more matured
  • Cite every reference along with the quotes

6.Conclusion

  This is an essential part and gives you a chance to sum up, your ideas. Your conclusion has to take a definite stand and summarize all your arguments, leaving the last impression to your reader. Don’t add any extra details or introduce any new ideas. Keep it short in 4-5 lines.

After You Finish

     Before You submit your final essay, make sure the format is correct. Read each paragraph, assess whether it answers the question, and check whether it contributes to your overall argument.Check and double-check your spelling and word counts(if mentioned). Spelling mistakes give a terrible impression, and sometimes it may eclipse your central concept. So you can turn on your spell-checker and your word count too to keep a track.

So it’s challenging to nurture these skills and to apply it on your own. EduManta provides online essay help. Before starting your journey of writing a good essay, we ensure that the appropriate writer is ready for essay writing. We offer a 24×7 service and guarantees the composition to be 100% plagiarism-free. If you need it, we can also assist you with a part of your essay. 

Visit  https://assignmenthelp.edumanta.com/ for any help.

WhatsApp @ +16802001343

email: assignmenthelp.em@gmail.com

plagiarism free assignment?

Plagiarism free work?

This writing is not to support or disagree with the norms in Academic writing. Still, it’s my take on the pretext of the use and misuse of term “plagiarism” to harasses the students by some lazy professors, whose definition of student knowledge can be judged by software like Turnitin or any other.

Many times, my students complained to me, sufficiently annoyed, that their work is showing plagiarized even when they did the entire job on their own without referring any source form book or internet. Initially., I was like, “you must have copied it from somewhere, better change the wordings and sentence structure and submit your work.” Luckily, being an obedient student or rather a helpless student, he did that. To my surprise, there was still a significant amount of plagiarism in work, and any scold him of being such a lazy ass.

Sometimes later, I thought that he is a sincere student, and the chances of him telling a lie is something I am not convinced of. I pulled out his previous and the latest work, matched word by word. To my surprise, he wrote these two works entirely in different words stuffing and sentence structure. Then I re-examined the source of plagiarism suggested by Turnitin, and it took me to surprise, that the first writing was showing to be plagiarized from some “X” site, almost 70% and in the second piece of paper was, after the edition, this “X” is now down to 1%, and ten other sources of writing came up.

After this episode, what clicked my mind was that the questions asked by the professor were a general one, which will have the answers of not more than 1 or 2 paragraphs each. I ran my imagination that how many students have answered these questions and in how many different way to avoid plagiarism is difficult to imagine. How can someone write a different answer to the same problem and how many ways to prevent plagiarism.

Well, a short message to those professors, to get unplagiarized work, a student has to re-edit his answer ten times to write in such a way that nobody else has written, so you should also concentrate on giving non-plagiarised question to get a non-plagiarised answer.

For research work, looking for plagiarism free work is evident as the research is trying to generate some new piece of knowledge that will add to the existing knowledge, but how can a student who is answering a question can give non plagiarised work for the problems that are solved by every student in every college and during every year. So, it will be good if professor develop some good yardstick to judge the knowledge of student rather than leaving that part of work too on some software.

Explain two organizational models of organisation culture which would help to achieve your chosen organisation’s strategic goals.

  1. Explain two organizational models of organisation culture which would help to achieve your chosen organisation’s strategic goals. (Assessment Criteria 1.1: Explain how models of organisation culture can be used to achieve organisational objectives).

Organizational model is a substructure of a business organisation that states the power, direction of order, management and cost control of a company. The explanation on how the company ought to play role in both scientific feature and from a psychological feature. The following are the two mostly applied models in to analyze the kind of lifestyle an organisation works for.

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a structure for multicultural communication evolved by Geert Hofstede. The consequences of an association’s lifestyle on the upon its members worth and the way it relates to behaviour of its members is stated in the theory, by using the framework obtained by factor examination. Original model evolved by Hofstede was a result of factor examination to inspect the observation carried all over the world of the employee’s worth by IBM in between the period of 1967-1973. Since then it has been revised for the betterment. The analysis includes 6 dimensions along with various cultural worth.

Power distance index (PDI): Thechiefdimension of the theory is the power distance index. It states that the members of the company who have comparatively low power in the business firm or a group agree upon dissimilar powers issued. In such dimension dissimilar power distribution is appreciated by the one who follows. Here the hierarchy is well defined and applied in the association with no point of doubt, as indicated in the higher level of index. Whereas in case of lower level of index the individuals tend to rise question on the authority and also tries to distribute the power. Here the authority and duties of a person employed is well defined. In Multinational firms it is very popularly observed that the low power distance is applied. The organisation emphasises in more like a family kind of structure.

Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV): The level to which the individuals in the organisation are united in the families is stated in this index. Often societies are unconventional ones which have loose bonds which are usually intact to their close ones only. They tend to focus on either the word ‘I’ or ‘we’ in order to get the work done. Mostly in the western regions, business firms choose Individualism even if the prime aim is to attain same motive. The whole task is parted into various groups in accordance with the role of the work, wherein the groups are to focus on their part of work. The workforce gets a superior opportunity to prove their worth in the organisation in case of individualism. The organisation in all is in charge of the task in case of collectivism which is mostly popular in Asian countries. Here the workforce work jointly and not individually hence, there isn’t any possibility of putting blames on each other in case of detained work or so. This brings out the assisting nature in the individuals. They tend to have close united association between the enlarged families and others. The members within the group are very faithful to each other and in case of dispute with members of other group.

Uncertainty avoidance (UAI): The uncertainty avoidance index states the society’s forbearance for uncertainty, wherein the individuals readily welcomes an unpredicted matter. These kinds of cultures are evolved from the society to the organisation. Some companies even on being prepared for the unfavourable situation still comprehend the degree of uncertainty and come up with the most appropriate way out. They are calm to upcoming bad situations and chose the best possible way out. In case of tasks being done for the first time such a situation is found. Even if the organisation has details and is pre prepared in terms of how to work on a particular project, the result may be different from what was expected but the organisation must be prepared for the outcome. In some business organisation where precision is the core element like German and Japanese companies, wherein they do not allow any sort of negligence in their product. They tend to follow strict rules and standards, by this they gain trust from their potential customers.

Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS): This sort of culture surrounds the kind of management they need. It is quite popularly found in several business firms that doesn’t believe in equality amongst genders and is partial towards male members especially in case of mining sites, construction sites etc. On contrary, organisations in the western countries are more likely to believe in gender equality and are more supportive towards female workforce. In case of masculinity that kind of culture that supports biasness in society for male leadership, heroism, achievement. In Femininity it’s all about being humble, modest, caring towards the employees and the task being done.

 In Ramada, there is least possible biasness; females are given equal importance as that of a male employee. In fact female employees are given more preference at the time of recruitment. It’s a hotel wherein male and female workforce is allotted work accordingly as per the suitability. The organisation takes care of the well being of its employees. It is always motivated to have a supervising quality and hard work is appreciated.

Long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation (LTO): This dimension relates to the link between the past with the present and future activities. The long term orientation focuses on upcoming advantages and more habitual foundation. They primary focus is on repetitive extension and not short term outcomes. In case of short term orientation short gains are of more value. The firmness of the business organisation is appreciated. In developed countries are usually long term orientated and they grow to an end whereas an under developed country are usually short term orientated as they have poor economic development.

Indulgence vs. restraint (IND): In this dimension the level of liberty that is given to the people by the social standards in order to attain their human wants. Indulgence refers to the freedom to satisfy primary and basic wants that is given by the society in terms of enjoyment and entertainment. In case of Restraint the freedom of the people is in the hands of the society.

Deal and Kennedy’s Model

The second very important and popularly used Organisational cultural model is the Deal and Kennedy’s Model. It states the way the task is exactly done in an organisation. The customs of an organisation depends upon various components; this was concluded by several manufacturing units on investigation. There are 6 kinds of cultural components that represent the framework of the organisation.

According to the past of the company, the kind of nature in the organisation and the process in which the culture has developed. The intense traditional worth can lead the elements of the cultural structure. Components like worth, trust, bravery, basic acts like greeting the co workers on arrival and departure, makes a great difference in setting up an organisation’s traditions. On investigating these components over several firms it was discovered that four different types of cultures prevails. It is based on in accordance with the level of threat accepted by the workforce as per the response given to them on their work done.

Tough Guy Macho Culture

The culture in a business firm wherein they are ready to take risk yet the response on their decision is received by them fast. As per the information they gain through their mastery, the risk is motivated in the business firm. This kind of culture is mostly seen in the advertising and entertainment industries, wherein a huge success is attained by taking great risk. Those who like taking chances and are ready to take quick responses can opt for such culture and individuals in this type of culture believes in working and succeeding on its own rather than working in groups. They tend to aim for success in short term. With the possibility of gaining huge yield, it becomes too tiring at times. Industrial section like police force, sports, entertainment, etc are a few examples of this type of culture.

Work Hard Play Hard Culture

This culture states that the level of threat is less yet the response is faster. Here the workforce is likely to accept high level of threats yet the response is quite comprehensive and quick- as in case of sales department. In this dimension one is supposed to be energetic and should be steady in order to get honoured shortly. The group as a whole is cherished as they manage its members in order to discharge a remarkable presentation, by means of contention and inner matches among them in order to encourage its workforce to contribute further to the organisation. Mainly in case of sales department, restaurants, etc this culture is used.

Ramada flourishes in such a way that the workforce group is motivated to put in more effort as a whole. During assignments which are distinctive a huge threat is taken over as the possibility of peril is comparatively more.

Process Culture

Where there is less chances of threat and response is also relaxed, in this case there isn’t room for speedy work and huge gain. Then this culture is known as process culture. Since the response is slow in this case hence, the aim is to keep a check on the procedure as the outcome takes time and errors aren’t allowed here. The task here is done with great superiority and with persistence along with that, happenings from former project is also kept in mind. Sectors like banking sectors, retail sectors and governmental organisation are a few examples of process culture. This is the world of large retailers, banks, insurance companies and government organizations. (This shows similarities with Control Culture as well).

Bet-Your-Company Culture

The bet your company culture is the kind of culture where the threat is huge yet the response is likely to take time. In this case it is very important to take resolution precisely in order to have the worth for a prolonged period of time as it is vital for the upcoming times, the arrangement and investigation. In case of technical provisions the threat factor and the plans are substantial while its formation and in this case the outcome might even take years to show result. Industrial sector like pharmaceutical corporate, oil and gas companies are a part of this culture.

Ramada is huge hotel chain hence; they don’t strive for recompense but for its survival. Therefore, the organisation opts for high threat over its goal and objective of its business.

1.2 Understand your national culture and your chosen organizational culture. Based on your understanding, explain the difference between your national culture and your chosen organizational culture.

The culture of United Arab Emirates (UAE) is similar to that of other countries of Arab; still it’s a different from them in order to grow in the world. With that the norms go a little easy on them conducting to growth though the prime ethics aren’t clashed. UAE has high values for its devotions and for its lifestyle. The lifestyle and heritage is a conduct of Islamic religion which has become combination lifestyles of India, Pakistan and Iran due to exchange of commerce with all these countries.

High priority is given to the education and compassionate efforts; it has commendably grown high in the field of education. Areas like Knowledge Park are in Dubai established only for the reason of promoting knowledge. In case compassion a lot of efforts have been put up in country like Syria and in the region like Palestine.

In the case of examining of national culture in the course of growth, some components which will be for the benefit of the business firm of the country. In UAE the weekends are not restricted to just the normal Saturday and Sunday. But it has one more day included that is Friday, here Fridays are also considered as holiday with many business firms giving offs on Saturdays. Islamic holidays are considered as holidays authorised by law in UAE. With development taking place and by passing of time, for the sake of adjusting with the immigrants in the country UAE now considers first day of January as a holiday authorised by law. As compared to other Arabian countries, UAE is furthermore likely to adapt lifestyles of other nations. It has the maximum number of workforce employed in the country hence; it is employee focused country in comparison to the countries in its surroundings. In order to protect its employees whether belonging to top level or to lower level the nation have its norms and acts applied. A number of norms and laws are applicable in order to make sure that its workforce is secured but the fact is that the nation in which the company is situated has its own ones too which the organisation has to follow too along with that of its own. Because of which the organisation couldn’t put into action its plans for the benefits of its workforce, even though the plans were for its employee’s joy. The organisation has a huge workforce working who have emigrated from more than 36 countries hence the organisation has to know how the culture of the nation where they locate along with that they need to understand their workforce’s culture. The variety of lifestyle generated in the organisation because of the emigrants was amazing to know and was equally complicated for the attainment of goals. There are a lot of distinctions in both the cultures i.e. the national one and the company’s one. The emigrants from Brazil have to bring huge alterations in their behaviour in order to cope with the organisation’s lifestyle in which they work; this is because the organisations in Brazil have an easy going lifestyle. As per the company’s norms the intervals are allowed to the workforce in a little strict manner and are based on the kind of task they perform. The element that the task has to be finished within the given schedule and the lifestyle of individualism are quite important. As the company has to abide by the nations culture too several rules and customs cannot be neglected and has to be applied in terms of lifestyle of locality. Appropriate number of interval required for their worships are to be allowed. Seasonal breaks to be allowed in order to maintain the welfare of the workers. The organisation keeps regards for the nation in which it works by taking into consideration their rules and customs along with the company’s own customs which is very well conveyed to the workforce recruited in that company.

1.3 Analyze the corporate cultural profile in your chosen organization.   

Ramada hotel’s corporate culture is quite strong and unlocked in nature though the prime worth are laid and instructed to its workforce. A powerful lifestyle has been set which helps it to spread its business all over the world and as a result of which it owns a chain of hotels. The complicated features of the organisation have to be considered, in order to examine the lifestyle of the organisation.

In Ramada there isn’t any system in which the workforce has to follow certain way in which they are supposed to communicate in the organisation like the vertical movement, rather the workforce is to free to communicate in whichever direction they feel like as they have free lifestyle. The organisation maintains a system of having a leader wherein each group is lead by a leader and not driven by a boss. The leader tends to lead the group together whereas the boss commands the group. This brings a huge difference in the working environment. The workforce tends to feel secured working under a leader and therefore obtain confidence. The lifestyle of the organisation is such that the post gets the needed honour yet the rest of the workforce doesn’t feel dejected as it doesn’t become overwhelming.

Ramada has well transmitted the excellence and prime worth to its employees as the hotel has chain spread all over the world, if it is closely examined in between the workers of the organisation. The workforce that is recruited has to undergo the teachings by the organisation which is done to make the employees aware of the lifestyle of the company. During this session new trainee get an opportunity to talk about their encounters. Ramada focuses on improving the lifestyle, expanding and be equitable towards its workforce. The organisation appreciates hard work and believes in promoting its employees in accordance with the work performed by them and for that regular investigation is done to improvise accordingly.

The organisation follows the culture of individualism and collectivism wherein the work is divided into groups and that each group become accountable for their own part of work. In this case each particular group has to focus on attaining its own goal making it their only aim. If there arise any issue while attaining the task then the top level management comes forward to assist, though the work is divided into groups but the groups are working for the organisation as a whole hence the top level management takes an initiative.  The organisation must carefully be able to handle its waste and should dispose the same in a proper way, tough norms must be implemented. They maintain a particular group for this work and the members of that group makes sure that wastes are properly handled and in this process the environment is not mistreated. Health camps are held at regular intervals in order to make sure that he workers are fit to work.

1.4 Discuss the impact of your chosen organisation’s corporate culture in achieving its objectives.

It is very important to instruct the newly recruited workforce about the lifestyle of the organisation in which they are to work. It is essential for the every single organisation to consider it to be of utmost importance to properly manage its workforce and supplies. Hence teaching is the best way to convey the lifestyle of the organisation to the workforce; all the elements are taken care as to how to socialise with others and guests of the hotel as well as how to take care of circumstances and lead the team in the worst possible circumstances. The worth and the goal of the organisation are well taken care by conveying it to the workforce. The most important and challenging work for the firm was the lifestyle barricade not just the nation where they exist but also the employees they would hire. In case of Dubai which is well known for employing a large number of employees from all over the world.  More than 70% of the workforces are the immigrants. It is of great provocation to recruit employees from other nations and make they follow the lifestyle of the firm along with that they also motivate them to maintain their own lifestyles and represent their own culture. In this way the Ramada chain of hotels was able to gain goodwill in the eyes of its locality by accepting the local lifestyle.

Putting in efforts into work is considered as vital lifestyle that the firm has brought into action. Examination at regular intervals is important to keep a check on the workforce by which they are to face provocations regularly and it also encourages them to go higher for their benefit, in the organisation. To give better emphasis, schemes like Employee of the month’ was introduced in order to motivate the employees to work efficiently and achieve the title.

Employee’s welfare is taken care well in the organisation by ensuring their safety and fulfilment of their needs. Regular health camps are organised for the workforce and is made sure that all the workers well know about the camps. Safety measures are well instructed at regular intervals.

Learning Outcome 2: Be able to propose organisational values that will influence corporate climate

For this learning outcome 2, choose the organization that you are currently working or has worked. Understand the climate of the organization, organizational values, operational needs of the chosen organization and proceed to answer the questions below.

2.1 Evaluate the existing climate of your chosen organization.

The procedure of calculating the lifestyle of the firm is known as organisation climate. The kind of procedure that the organisation uses is resolved via organisation climate. The way the workers response to changes depending upon the norms inculcated by the organisation, how the employees work. It also studies the circumstances wherein the way the employees respond to particularly. In case of a constructive atmosphere in the organisation the workforce seems motivated and is willing to put effort in order to boost the business whereas in the case of obstructive atmosphere in the organisation the workforce seems down on morale and are less likely to contribute to the business of the organisation as emphasis is given to individualism more and encouragement to work as a whole is less.

The organisational climate of Ramada is quite adjustable as in case of authority and flow of order. Here the workforce is motivated to come up and discuss their point of view with the high level authorities. The subordinates are allowed to put forward their thoughts. The management of the organisation is a mixture of official and unofficial wherein they must be official with its associates while they can conversant unofficially with their workers, among themselves. The belief behind this is that the employees are more likely to enjoy working in the organisation when they find the surrounding to be easy going. Working in such huge hotel become a very tiring at times, some of the days are so hectic with no intervals in between hence the organisation must appreciate the work done by workforce.

Improvising is consistently happening in Ramada as it’s amongst the top most chain of hotels. By keeping in mind their main aim with which it started off its business. Various franchises like Ramada Inn, Ramada Limited, Ramada Plaza, and Ramada Suites are the expansions of Ramada chain of hotel. The objective of the Ramada hotels is the growth of its locality in which it exists and it is achieved by guiding and recruiting the people from the local regions. This gives the organisation a worldwide viewpoint focusing on the growth of the whole world with no biasness. The atmosphere in the organisation is very energetic which is done by appreciation by means of awards and also through giving bonuses once a year. Ramada hotels motivates its workers to their respective culture along with that Ramada hotels follows the local culture in which it exists therefore it follows combined lifestyle.

2.2 Recommend ways to improve corporate climate in your chosen organization.

Ramada hotels is a multi cultured business firm which has around 66 years old of exposure in the market. Since it is believed that no method is perfectly fit for any organisation therefore the need to alter it for the betterment of the organisation.  There are various affairs and actions involved in the operations of the organisation and the fact that none of them are the best hence, it needs to be amended. Ramada has various techniques so as to improvise the organisation’s atmosphere which is done only if it beliefs that the alterations are required. The organisation conveys about its lifestyle to its workforce during training sessions. There is the need of alterations in the manner in which Ramada operates as it is running for over 66 years now. As the time passes the ideals and features of the public differs and in that case the organisation is supposed to accept the alterations. The other places where alterations are required are the rewards and kinds of appreciation given to its workforce must be checked at regular intervals and required alterations must be made. It is stated that Ramada isn’t biased towards its employees yet it’s not true consistently.  It’s the common human character to form an opinion about people that work in the organisation and it mainly initiates from the top management front. But the organisation must comprehend that all the employees must be considered same in their eyes in order to make the employees perceive homely at their workplace. Partiality and nationalism must not be practiced rather the work done must define their worth in the organisation.

In the hotel industry it is usually seen that the way they function is alike until and unless it is properly explained and innovative, it has no much distinction in the operation. The organisation always encourages in putting fresh and better ideas so as to use supplies and information in a better way. This way the organisation attains a lot of tasks.

COSC 1P03 Assignment 2 Abstract Data Types

COSC 1P03 Assignment 2 Abstract Data Types – Colours Due: Friday, June 14th (@5:00pm)

Objective: To produce multiple implementations of an Abstract Data Type.

Background: The idea of Colour is a somewhat abstract concept. Most of us* can understand green, purple, etc., but may not be able to agree on the best way to unambiguously represent them. Actual perceived colours are the result of combining photons of numerous wavelengths (far more complicated than necessary for an adequate colour model). The most common modern approach is to simplify the process by expressing a colour as some combination of red, green, and blue. However, even that is far more complicated than it might seem. For this assignment, you’ll be directly implementing two variations of RGB, and indirectly making use of a third method.

DoubleColour.java

You are to write a class, DoubleColour.java, that will be part of the colours package, and will implement the Colour interface. This class will represent a colour as three double-precision floatingpoint values; one for red, one for green, and one for blue. Each value will be a per-channel intensity scaled from 0.0 to 1.0. Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow can be simulated (as though they were directly stored) as documented in the interface.

SixteenBitColour.java

You are to write a class, SixteenBitColour.java, that will also be part of the colours package, and mimic the precision of 16-bit colour. For 16-bit, colours are traditionally stored as a twobyte word, but you can just use three integers. The red is represented as an unsigned value (i.e. it’s impossible to be ‘negative-red’), with 5 bits of precision. This means that zero intensity (black in that channel) corresponds to 0, and full red corresponds to 31 (the highest value representable with 5-bits in zero-based unsigned integers). Because the human eye is better at distinguishing between shades of greens than reds or blues, 6 bits are allocated to representing that channel. Thus, instead of ranging from 0 to 31, the green channel ranges from 0 to 63. The third value, blue, is represented in the same way as red. So, to create pure white: new SixteenBitColour(31,63,31) For yellow: new SixteenBitColour(31,63,0) For a greenish-blue: new SixteenBitColour(0,32,31)

24-bit colour

24bit colour is simpler than 16-bit, in that the scale is the same for all three channels. Each channel has a value from 0 to 255 (the highest value representable from 8 bits, in an unsigned integer). You won’t be creating a class based on this model, but will need to know it for the other two, because of a related representation: Hexadecimal. Hexadecimal is a very popular method of expressing colours (particularly

( * Well, there are tens of millions of people with some form of colour blindness or another, but nearly all can still see colours; they simply can’t distinguished particular colours from each other. Also, fun fact: Colour blindness is drastically more common in males. Think of 20 men you know; decent chance one or two of them are colour blind, even if they’ve never mentioned it! in web development, and sometimes in image editors). It’s identical to 24-bit colour except, instead of expressing as a single base-10 value, or three base-10 values, the colour is expressed as a single 6- character hexadecimal value. e.g. Instead of magenta being 255, 0, 255, it could be expressed as FF00FF. There are a multitude of ways to perform the calculations, some of which are built into Java. There’s plenty of info on the subject available online, but we can also talk about it in class. For this assignment, both DoubleColour and SixteenBitColour will need a constructor that accepts a String containing a hexadecimal colour. Additionally, irrespective of the internal representation, both must implement toString such that they return the colour expressed in the same 24bit hexadecimal format.

Requirements: Both implemented colour classes will be immutable. This simply means that, once a colour is created, new variations of it may also be created, but the original can never be modified.

Both classes must have the ability to throw an InvalidColourException if, in their constructors, they are expected to create invalid instances (e.g. a DoubleColour with a red of 1.5, or a SixteenBitColour with a blue of -1).

Both of the implementations (concrete classes) you’ll be writing will implement the Colour interface. The interface specifies the operations that each implementation needs to support. Note that, irrespective of the internal representation, the expected functionality remains the same. e.g. Even if you represent your colour in 16-bit integer form, the getRed() function still returns the red component scaled from 0.0 to 1.0.

The interface specifies certain additional functionalities: •

public Colour mix(Colour c) – create a new Colour that shares properties of both the current Colour and the supplied parameter. Note that, being immutable, the function returns the new, combined colour, but does not modify the original. The easiest way to do this is to use a red that’s halfway between the two original reds (and repeat for green and blue). •

public Colour lighten() – create a new, lighter version of the current colour. Just set each colour channel’s intensity to being halfway between the original value and full intensity (mathematically, this is the same as ‘mixing’ with white). •

public Colour darken() – Same as lighten, but darker. (The easiest way to calculate this is to halve each channel’s intensity) •

public Colour invert() – Formally, the distance from zero intensity will become the distance from full intensity (more pratcially, for DoubleColour as an example, red=1-red, etc.) •

public Colour grey() – Take the average (mean) intensity of the three channels, and set that one value to all three channels in the new colour. • public Color speltPoorly() – Refer to the java api specifications for java.awt.Color. Note that you may not use this function to make the other ones easier to implement. The Color class is to be used only for interacting with external code (like, for example, the supplied Demo class) Note: Be very careful when working with SixteenBitColour, due to the differing ranges for the channels! In particular, the grey() function might be a nuisance!

Testing: There will be two phases of testing/demonstration: A test harness and a demo program. Test Harness: You must write this. It’s up to you to demonstrate proper functionality, including appropriate use of exceptions, different constructors, and interoperability between SixteenBitColour’s and DoubleColours for the mix function. Just use several System.out.println commands to display the results of hardcoded tests. Try to be thorough. Remember that you’re verifying the functionality of individual components, before trying them out in a full system.

Demonstration: Provided is Demo.java. Note that Demo.java is not part of the same package! This was intentional, so do not add the package line to the top of it. If you wrote your implementations correctly, then all you’ll need to do is compile it along with your classes, and it will run perfectly (and have lotsa buttons and stuff!). Submission:

Submission is electronic only. Create a single folder on your Z: drive (say, Assign2). All of your source files will go into this folder. Also include a sample execution of your test harness in this folder. Next, connect to sandcastle: • From Windows: ◦ Use PuTTY to connect to sandcastle.cosc.brocku.ca • From Linux: ◦ Use SSH to connect to sandcastle.cosc.brocku.ca Navigate to your submission folder (e.g. cd Assign2). Run the submission script: submit1p03 Make sure you tell it the correct assignment you’re submitting for.